Punge, H. J., and Kunz, M. (2016): Hail observations and hailstorm characteristics in Europe: A review. Atmos. Res., doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.012.
Severe thunderstorms associated with large hail are among the most important perils in several European regions. Due to the local-scale extent of hail-affected areas and a lack of appropriate observing systems in most regions, hailstorms are not captured accurately and comprehensively, which makes statistical analysis of their frequency or climatology more difficult. Various studies have been conducted so far to describe and analyze the frequency of hailstorms or related impacts. These studies, however, refer to a wide range of spatial scales and consider different time periods, investigation methods, or hailstone diameters.
This article will give a comprehensive overview and review of the present state of knowledge on hail hazard and hail frequency over recent decades up to centuries across Europe and is intended as a reference for future studies. We attempted to summarize and synthesize the various prevailing studies with the objective to identify regions that are most prone to hail hazard. Another focus is put on mechanisms that may explain spatial variability and inhomogeneities in hail frequency observed across various spatial scales.
- hail frequency;
- hail observation;
- hail characteristics;