Research Interests

  • paleoclimate (regional modeling, large scale circulation)
  • (modeling of) high impact weather (e.g. winter storms, convective systems, floods)
  • climate variability in Europe


  • SCENIC: Storyline Scenarios of Extreme Weather, Climate, and Environmental Events along with their Impacts in a Warmer World. link
  • Extreme weather events under recent climate conditions. Aon-Benfield IF, London, UK.
  • PALEOLINK link


  • Climatology (BSc), lecture and exercises, since 2018
  • Synoptic Meteorology (BSs), lecture, since 2018
  • Seminar on IPCC Report (MSc), lecture, since 2017
  • Climate Modeling & Dynamics with ICON (MSc), lecture, since 2020

Curriculum Vitae

  • since 2017: Research Associate, IMK-TRO, KIT
  • 2013-2017: Research Associate, IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany
  • 2009-2014: PhD student, IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany
  • 2001-2008: Diploma in Meteorology, IGMK, University of Cologne, Germany


A multi-disciplinary analysis of the exceptional flood event of July 2021 in central Europe. Part 1: Event description and analysis
Mohr, S.; Ehret, U.; Kunz, M.; Ludwig, P.; Caldas-Alvarez, A.; Daniell, J. E.; Ehmele, F.; Feldmann, H.; Franca, M. J.; Gattke, C.; Hundhausen, M.; Knippertz, P.; Küpfer, K.; Mühr, B.; Pinto, J. G.; Quinting, J.; Schäfer, A. M.; Scheibel, M.; Seidel, F.; Wisotzky, C.
2023. Natural hazards and earth system sciences, 23 (2), 525–551. doi:10.5194/nhess-23-525-2023
On the importance of moisture conveyor belts from the tropical eastern Pacific for wetter conditions in the Atacama Desert during the mid-Pliocene
Reyers, M.; Fiedler, S.; Ludwig, P.; Böhm, C.; Wennrich, V.; Shao, Y.
2023. Climate of the Past, 19 (2), 517–532. doi:10.5194/cp-19-517-2023
Greenland ice core record of last glacial dust sources and atmospheric circulation
Újvári, G.; Klötzli, U.; Stevens, T.; Svensson, A.; Ludwig, P.; Vennemann, T.; Gier, S.; Horschinegg, M.; Palcsu, L.; Hippler, D.; Kovács, J.; Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.
2022. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127 (15), e2022JD036597. doi:10.1029/2022JD036597
Representation of precipitation and top-of-atmosphere radiation in a multi-model convection-permitting ensemble for the Lake Victoria Basin (East-Africa)
Lipzig, N. P. M. van; Walle, J. V. de; Belušić, D.; Berthou, S.; Coppola, E.; Demuzere, M.; Fink, A. H.; Finney, D. L.; Glazer, R.; Ludwig, P.; Marsham, J. H.; Nikulin, G.; Pinto, J. G.; Rowell, D. P.; Wu, M.; Thiery, W.
2022. Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06541-5
A multi-disciplinary analysis of the exceptional flood event of July 2021 in central Europe. Part 2: Historical context and relation to climate change
Ludwig, P.; Ehmele, F.; Franca, M. J.; Mohr, S.; Caldas-Alvarez, A.; Daniell, J. E.; Ehret, U.; Feldmann, H.; Hundhausen, M.; Knippertz, P.; Küpfer, K.; Kunz, M.; Mühr, B.; Pinto, J. G.; Quinting, J.; Schäfer, A. M.; Seidel, F.; Wisotzky, C.
2022. Natural hazards and earth system sciences discussions. doi:10.5194/nhess-2022-225
Last Glacial Maximum active layer thickness in Western Europe, and the issue of ‘tundra gleys’ in loess sequences
Bertran, P.; Stadelmaier, K. H.; Ludwig, P.
2022. Journal of Quaternary Science, 37 (7), 1222–1228. doi:10.1002/jqs.3434
Adaptation and application of the large LAERTES-EU regional climate model ensemble for modeling hydrological extremes: a pilot study for the Rhine basin
Ehmele, F.; Kautz, L.-A.; Feldmann, H.; He, Y.; Kadlec, M.; Kelemen, F. D.; Lentink, H. S.; Ludwig, P.; Manful, D.; Pinto, J. G.
2022. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 22 (2), 677–692. doi:10.5194/nhess-22-677-2022
Malaco temperature reconstructions and numerical simulation of environmental conditions in the southeastern Carpathian Basin during the Last Glacial Maximum
Ludwig, P.; Gavrilov, M. B.; Radaković, M. G.; Marković, S. B.
2021. Journal of quaternary science, 36 (8), 1426–1435. doi:10.1002/jqs.3318
The damaging tornado in Luxembourg on 9 August 2019: towards better operational forecasts
Mathias, L.; Ludwig, P.; Pinto, J. G.
2021. Weather, 76 (8), 264–271. doi:10.1002/wea.3979
Cultural evolution and environmental change in Central Europe between 40 and 15 ka
Maier, A.; Stojakowits, P.; Mayr, C.; Pfeifer, S.; Preusser, F.; Zolitschka, B.; Anghelinu, M.; Bobak, D.; Duprat-Oualid, F.; Einwögerer, T.; Hambach, U.; Händel, M.; Kaminská, L.; Kämpf, L.; Łanczont, M.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Ludwig, P.; Magyari, E.; Mroczek, P.; Nemergut, A.; Nerudová, Z.; Niţă, L.; Polanská, M.; Połtowicz-Bobak, M.; Rius, D.; Römer, W.; Simon, U.; Škrdla, P.; Újvári, G.; Veres, D.
2021. Quaternary international, 581-582, 225–240. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2020.09.049
Simulated regional dust cycle in the Carpathian Basin and the Adriatic Sea region during the Last Glacial Maximum
Ludwig, P.; Gavrilov, M. B.; Markovic, S. B.; Ujvari, G.; Lehmkuhl, F.
2021. Quaternary international, 581-582, 114–127. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2020.09.048
Human existence potential in Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum
Klein, K.; Wegener, C.; Schmidt, I.; Rostami, M.; Ludwig, P.; Ulbrich, S.; Richter, J.; Weniger, G.-C.; Shao, Y.
2021. Quaternary international, 581-582, 7–27. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2020.07.046
A review of past changes in extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere and what can be learned for the future
Raible, C. C.; Pinto, J. G.; Ludwig, P.; Messmer, M.
2021. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews / Climate change, 12 (1), Art.Nr. e680. doi:10.1002/wcc.680
A new perspective on permafrost boundaries in France during the Last Glacial Maximum
Stadelmaier, K. H.; Ludwig, P.; Bertran, P.; Antoine, P.; Shi, X.; Lohmann, G.; Pinto, J. G.
2021. Climate of the past, 17 (6), 2559–2576. doi:10.5194/cp-17-2559-2021
The role of land cover in the climate of glacial Europe
Velasquez, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Messmer, M.; Ludwig, P.; Raible, C. C.
2021. Climate of the past, 17 (3), 1161–1180. doi:10.5194/cp-17-1161-2021
A joint effort to bring together global, regional modeling and proxy communities
Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Ludwig, P.; Zeiher, N.; Talento, S.; Parveen, U.; Wagner, S.
2019. Past global changes magazine, 27 (1), 41. doi:10.22498/pages.27.1.41
Vortex Identification across Different Scales
Schielicke, L.; Gatzen, C. P.; Ludwig, P.
2019. Atmosphere, 10 (9), 518–543. doi:10.3390/atmos10090518
From Atmospheric Dynamics to Insurance Losses – an Interdisciplinary Workshop on European Storms
Pinto, J. G.; Pantillon, F.; Ludwig, P.; Déroche, M.-S.; Leoncini, G.; Raible, C. C.; Shaffrey, L. C.; Stephenson, D. B.
2019. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, ES175-ES178. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0026.1
Diving into the past – A paleo data-model comparison workshop on the Late Glacial and Holocene
Weitzel, N.; Wagner, S.; Sjolte, J.; Klockmann, M.; Bothe, O.; Andres, H.; Tarasov, L.; Rehfeld, K.; Zorita, E.; Widmann, M.; Sommer, P.; Schädler, G.; Ludwig, P.; Kapp, F.; Jonkers, L.; García-Pintado, J.; Fuhrmann, F.; Dolman, A.; Dallmeyer, A.; Brücher, T.
2019. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100 (1), ES1-ES4. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0169.1
Perspectives of regional paleoclimate modeling
Ludwig, P.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Pinto, J. G.; Raible, C. C.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.
2019. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1436 (1), 54–69. doi:10.1111/nyas.13865
Environmental change during MIS4 and MIS 3 opened corridors in the Horn of Africa for Homo sapiens expansion
Viehberg, F. A.; Just, J.; Dean, J. R.; Wagner, B.; Franz, S. O.; Klasen, N.; Kleinen, T.; Ludwig, P.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Leng, M. J.; Rethemeyer, J.; Milodowski, A. E.; Claussen, M.; Schäbitz, F.
2018. Quaternary science reviews, 202, 139–153. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.09.008
Impacts of Surface Boundary Conditions on Regional Climate Model Simulations of European Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum
Ludwig, P.; Pinto, J. G.; Raible, C. C.; Shao, Y.
2017. Geophysical research letters, 44, 5086–5095. doi:10.1002/2017GL073622
Synoptic analysis and hindcast of an intense bow echo in Western Europe: The 09 June 2014 storm
Mathias, L.; Ermert, V.; Kelemen, F. D.; Ludwig, P.; Pinto, J. G.
2017. Weather and forecasting, 32 (3), 1121–1141. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-16-0192.1

Earlier / other Publication

  1. Shao Y, Anhäuser A, Ludwig P, Schlüter P, Williams E (2018) Statistic Reconstruction of Global Vegetation for the Last Glacial Maximum. Global and Planetary Change, Volume 168, Pages 67-77 doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.06.002 link
  2. Maier A, Lehmkuhl F, Ludwig P, Melles M, Schmidt I, Shao Y, Zeeden C, Zimmermann A (2016) Demographic estimates of hunter–gatherers during the Last Glacial Maximum in Europe against the background of palaeoenvironmental data. Quaternary International, 425, 49-61., link
  3. Dangendorf S, Arns A, Pinto JG, Ludwig P, Jensen J (2016) The exceptional influence of storm “Xaver” on design water levels in the German Bight. Environ Res Lett 11:054001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054001, link
  4. Ludwig P, Schaffernicht EJ, Shao Y, Pinto JG (2016) Regional atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum and its links to precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 2130–2145. doi:10.1002/2015JD024444, link
  5. Kelemen FD, Ludwig P, Reyers M, Ulbrich S, Pinto JG (2016) Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations. Tellus A 68:29288. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v68.29288, link
  6. Ludwig P, Pinto JG, Reyers M, Gray SL (2014) The role of anomalous SST over the Southeastern North Atlantic in the explosive development of winter storm Xynthia. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 140, 1729–1741. doi:10.1002/qj.2253
  7. Held H, Gerstengarbe FW, Pardowitz T, Pinto JG, Ulbrich U, Böhm U, Born K, Büchner M, Donat MG, Karremann MK, Leckebusch GC, Ludwig P, Nissen KM, Nocke T, Osterle H, Prahl BF, Werner PC, Befort BJ, Burghoff O (2013) Projections of global warming-induced impacts on winter storm losses in the German private household sector. Clim Change Clim Change, 121, 195-207. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0872-7
  8. Liberato MLR, Pinto JG, Trigo RM, Ludwig P, Ordóñez P, Yuen D, Trigo IF (2013) Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the southeastern North Atlantic. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13, 2239-2251. doi:10.5194/nhess-13-2239-2013
  9. Born K, Ludwig P, Pinto JG (2012) Wind Gust Estimation for Mid-European Winter Storms: Towards a Probabilistic View. Tellus A 64:17471. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17471

Doctoral Thesis

Ludwig P (2014):  European Winter Storms: Dynamical Aspects and Wind Gust Estimation based on results of Regional Climate Model simulations. IGMK, University of Cologne.

Diploma Thesis

Ludwig P (2009): Statistical postprocessing of precipitation generated with FOOT3DK for the rainy season 2002 in Benin (West Africa). IGMK, University of Cologne.