Jun.-Prof. Dr. Christian Grams

  • Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) 
    Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1
    D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen


My general research focus is on synoptic-dynamic meteorology, physical and dynamical processes governing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, high impact weather, and predictability in particular on the medium- and subseasonal time scales.

Please visit my private webpage (external) for more information, e.g.

—  List of Publications

—  Curriculum Vitae

—  Research

See the "Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability" group pages for research activities in the group.

Begutachtete Zeitschriftenbeiträge

Exploring the Use of European Weather Regimes for Improving User-Relevant Hydrological Forecasts at the Subseasonal Scale in Switzerland
Chang, A. Y.-Y.; Bogner, K.; Grams, C. M.; Monhart, S.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Zappa, M.
2023. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 24 (10), 1597–1617. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-21-0245.1
Multi‐model assessment of sub‐seasonal predictive skill for year‐round Atlantic–European weather regimes
Osman, M.; Beerli, R.; Büeler, D.; Grams, C. M. M.
2023. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 149 (755), 2386–2408. doi:10.1002/qj.4512
Meteorological conditions during periods of low wind speed and insolation in Germany: The role of weather regimes
Mockert, F.; Grams, C. M.; Brown, T.; Neumann, F.
2023. Meteorological Applications, 30 (4), Art.Nr.: e2141. doi:10.1002/met.2141
Everything Hits at Once: How Remote Rainfall Matters for the Prediction of the 2021 North American Heat Wave
Oertel, A.; Pickl, M.; Quinting, J. F.; Hauser, S.; Wandel, J.; Magnusson, L.; Balmaseda, M.; Vitart, F.; Grams, C. M.
2023. Geophysical Research Letters, 50 (3), Art.Nr:e2022GL100958. doi:10.1029/2022GL100958
The Linkage of Serial Cyclone Clustering in Western Europe and Weather Regimes in the North Atlantic‐European Region in Boreal Winter
Hauser, S.; Mueller, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, T.-C.; Pinto, J. G.; Grams, C. M.
2023. Geophysical Research Letters, 50 (2), e2022GL101900. doi:10.1029/2022GL101900
Interaction of microphysics and dynamics in a warm conveyor belt simulated with the ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model
Oertel, A.; Miltenberger, A. K.; Grams, C. M.; Hoose, C.
2023. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23 (15), 8553–8581. doi:10.5194/acp-23-8553-2023
Warm conveyor belts as amplifiers of forecast uncertainty
Pickl, M.; Quinting, J. F.; Grams, C. M.
2023. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. doi:10.1002/qj.4546
Aerosol–cloud–radiation interaction during Saharan dust episodes: the dusty cirrus puzzle
Seifert, A.; Bachmann, V.; Filipitsch, F.; Förstner, J.; Grams, C. M.; Hoshyaripour, G. A.; Quinting, J.; Rohde, A.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, A.; Vogel, B.
2023. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23 (11), 6409–6430. doi:10.5194/acp-23-6409-2023
Towards a holistic understanding of blocked regime dynamics through a combination of complementary diagnostic perspectives
Hauser, S.; Teubler, F.; Riemer, M.; Knippertz, P.; Grams, C. M.
2023. Weather and Climate Dynamics, 4 (2), 399–425. doi:10.5194/wcd-4-399-2023
Similarity and variability of blocked weather-regime dynamics in the Atlantic–European region
Teubler, F.; Riemer, M.; Polster, C.; Grams, C. M.; Hauser, S.; Wirth, V.
2023. Weather and Climate Dynamics, 4 (2), 265–285. doi:10.5194/wcd-4-265-2023
Advances in the application and utility of subseasonal-to-seasonal predictions
White, C. J.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Acharya, N.; Adefisan, E. A.; Anderson, M. L.; Aura, S.; Balogun, A. A.; Bertram, D.; Bluhm, S.; Brayshaw, D. J.; Browell, J.; Büeler, D.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Chourio, X.; Christel, I.; Coelho, C. A. S.; DeFlorio, M. J.; Delle Monache, L.; Di Giuseppe, F.; García-Solórzano, A. M.; Gibson, P. B.; Goddard, L.; González Romero, C.; Graham, R. J.; Graham, R. M.; Grams, C. M.; Halford, A.; Katty Huang, W. T.; Jensen, K.; Kilavi, M.; Lawal, K. A.; Lee, R. W.; MacLeod, D.; Manrique-Suñén, A.; Martins, E. S. P. R.; Maxwell, C. J.; Merryfield, W. J.; Muñoz, Á. G.; Olaniyan, E.; Otieno, G.; Oyedepo, J. A.; Palma, L.; Pechlivanidis, I. G.; Pons, D.; Ralph, F. M.; Reis Jr., D. S.; Remenyi, T. A.; Risbey, J. S.; Robertson, D. J. C.; Robertson, A. W.; Smith, S.; Soret, A.; Sun, T.; Todd, M. C.; Tozer, C. R.; Vasconcelos Jr., F. C.; Vigo, I.; Waliser, D. E.; Wetterhall, F.; Wilson, R. G.
2022. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103 (6), E1448–E1472. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0224.1
The effect of stochastically perturbed parametrisation tendencies (SPPT) on rapidly ascending air streams
Pickl, M.; Lang, S. T. K.; Leutbecher, M.; Grams, C. M.
2022. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 148 (744), 1242–1261. doi:10.1002/qj.4257
Tropospheric Role in the Predictability of the Surface Impact of the 2018 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event
González-Alemán, J. J.; Grams, C. M.; Ayarzagüena, B.; Zurita-Gotor, P.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Gómara, I.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.; Vitart, F.
2022. Geophysical research letters, 49 (1). doi:10.1029/2021GL095464
Do Atlantic‐European weather regimes physically exist?
Hochman, A.; Messori, G.; Quinting, J. F.; Pinto, J. G.; Grams, C. M.
2021. Geophysical research letters, 48 (20), e2021GL095574. doi:10.1029/2021GL095574
Year-round sub-seasonal forecast skill for Atlantic-European weather regimes
Büeler, D.; Ferranti, L.; Magnusson, L.; Quinting, J. F.; Grams, C. M.
2021. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 147 (741), 4283–4309. doi:10.1002/qj.4178
Stratospheric influence on ECMWF sub‐seasonal forecast skill for energy‐industry‐relevant surface weather in European countries
Büeler, D.; Beerli, R.; Wernli, H.; Grams, C. M.
2020. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146 (733), 3675–3694. doi:10.1002/qj.3866
Dynamics of concurrent and sequential Central European and Scandinavian heatwaves
Spensberger, C.; Madonna, E.; Boettcher, M.; Grams, C. M.; Papritz, L.; Quinting, J. F.; Röthlisberger, M.; Sprenger, M.; Zschenderlein, P.
2020. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146 (732), 2998–3013. doi:10.1002/qj.3822
A weather system perspective on winter‐spring rainfall variability in southeastern Australia during El Niño
Hauser, S.; Grams, C. M.; Reeder, M. J.; McGregor, S.; Fink, A. H.; Quinting, J. F.
2020. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146 (731), 2614–2633. doi:10.1002/qj.3808
Sub-national variability of wind power generation in complex terrain and its correlation with large-scale meteorology
Pickering, B.; Grams, C. M.; Pfenninger, S.
2020. Environmental research letters, 15 (4), Article: 044025. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab70bd
Representation of atmospheric blocking in the new global non-hydrostatic weather prediction model ICON
Attinger, R.; Keller, J. H.; Köhler, M.; Riboldi, J.; Grams, C. M.
2019. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 28 (5), 429–446. doi:10.1127/metz/2019/0967
Stratospheric modulation of the large‐scale circulation in the Atlantic‐European region and its implications for surface weather events
Beerli, R.; Grams, C. M.
2019. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 145 (725), 3732–3750. doi:10.1002/qj.3653
Winter pressures on the UK health system dominated by the Greenland Blocking weather regime
Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Aldridge, R. W.; Grams, C. M.; Lee, R.
2019. Weather and climate extremes, 25, 100218. doi:10.1016/j.wace.2019.100218
The climatological impact of recurving North Atlantic tropical cyclones on downstream extreme precipitation events
Pohorsky, R.; Röthlisberger, M.; Grams, C. M.; Riboldi, J.; Martius, O.
2019. Monthly weather review, 147 (5), 1513–1532. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0195.1
The Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones Part II: Interaction with the midlatitude flow, downstream impacts, and implications for predictability
Keller, J. H.; Grams, C. M.; Riemer, M.; Archambault, H. M.; Bosart, L.; Doyle, J. D.; Evans, J. L.; Galarneau, T. J., Jr.; Griffin, K.; Harr, P. A.; Kitabatake, N.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Pantillon, F.; Quinting, J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Ritchie, E. A.; Torn, R. D.; Zhang, F.
2019. Monthly weather review, 147, 1077–1106. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0329.1
Influence of blocking on Northern European and Western Russian heatwaves in large climate model ensembles
Schaller, N.; Sillmann, J.; Anstey, J.; Fischer, E. M.; Grams, C. M.; Russo, S.
2018. Environmental research letters, 13 (5), Art.Nr. 054015. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaba55
The effects of orography on the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: a case study of Typhoon Sinlaku (2008)
Lentink, H. S.; Grams, C. M.; Riemer, M.; Jones, S. C.
2018. Monthly weather review, 146, 4231–4246. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0150.1
An atmospheric dynamics‘ perspective on the amplification and propagation of forecast error in numerical weather prediction models: a case study
Grams, C. M.; Magnusson, L.; Madonna, E.
2018. Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 144 (717), 2577–2591. doi:10.1002/qj.3353
Rossby wave initiation by recurving tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific
Riboldi, J.; Röthlisberger, M.; Grams, C. M.
2018. Monthly weather review, 146 (5), 1283–1301. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0219.1
Publications before group start


Schäfler, A., and Coauthors, 2018: The North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0003.1.


Binder, H., M. Böttcher, C. M. Grams, H. Joos, S. Pfahl, and H. Wernli, 2017: Exceptional airmass transport and dynamical drivers of an extreme Arctic winter warm event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 2017GL075841, doi:10.1002/2017GL075841.

Grams, C. M., R. Beerli, S. Pfenninger, I. Staffell, and H. Wernli, 2017: Balancing Europe’s wind power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes, Nature Climate Change, 7, 557–562,  doi:10.1038/nclimate3338.

Beerli, R., H. Wernli, and C. M. Grams, 2017: Does the lower stratosphere provide predictability for month-ahead wind electricity generation in Europe? Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,143, 3025–3036, doi:10.1002/qj.3158.

Evans, C., and Coauthors, 2017: The Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclone Evolution and Direct Impacts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 4317–4344, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0027.1.

Madonna, E., C. Li, C. M. Grams, and T. Woollings, 2017: The link between eddy-driven jet variability and weather regimes in the North Atlantic-European sector. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 143, 2960–2972, doi:10.1002/qj.3155.

Schneidereit, A., D. Peters, C.M. Grams, G. Wolf, M. Riemer, F. Gierth, J. Quinting, J.H. Keller, and O. Martius, 2017: Enhanced tropospheric wave forcing of two anticyclones in the pre-phase of  the January 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 1797-1815, doi:10.1175%2FMWR-D-16-0242.1.

Sprenger M., G. Fragkoulidis, H. Binder, M. Croci-Maspoli, P. Graf, C. M. Grams, P. Knippertz, E. Madonna, S. Schemm, B. Skerlak, and H. Wernli, 2017: Global climatologies of Eulerian and Lagrangian flow features based on ERA-Interim reanalyses. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 1739–1748, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00299.1.


Grams, C. M. and H. M. Archambault, 2016: The key role of diabatic outflow in amplifying the midlatitude flow: a representative case study of weather systems surrounding western North Pacific extratropical transition. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 3847–3869, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-15-0419.1.


Grams, C. M., S.T.K. Lang, and J.H. Keller, 2015: A quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of the downstream midlatitude flow response to extratropical transition of tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2015GL065764, doi:10.1002/2015GL065764.

Grams, C. M. and S.R. Blumer, 2015: European high-impact weather caused by the downstream response to the extratropical transition of North Atlantic Hurricane Katia (2011). Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2015GL066253, doi:10.1002/2015GL066253.

Pfahl, S., C. Schwierz, M. Croci-Maspoli, C. M. Grams, and H. Wernli, 2015: Importance of latent heat release in ascending air streams for atmospheric blocking. Nature Geosci., 8, 610–614, doi:10.1038/ngeo2487.

Piaget, N., P. Froidevaux, P. Giannakaki, F. Gierth, O. Martius, M. Riemer, G. Wolf, and C. M. Grams, 2015: Dynamics of a local Alpine flooding event in October 2011: moisture source and large-scale circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 141, 1922–1937, doi:10.1002/qj.2496.

Rautenhaus, M., C. M. Grams, A. Schäfler, and R. Westermann, 2015. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2355-2377, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2355-2015.


Madonna, E., M. Boettcher, C. M. Grams, H. Joos, O. Martius and H. Wernli, 2014: Verification of North Atlantic warm conveyor belt outflows in ECMWF forecasts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 141: 1333–1344, doi:10.1002/qj.2442.

Grams, C. M., H. Binder, S. Pfahl, N. Piaget, and H. Wernli, 2014: Atmospheric processes triggering the Central European floods in June 2013, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1691–1702, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-1691-2014.

Schäfler, A., M. Boettcher, C. M. Grams, M. Rautenhaus, H. Sodemann, and H. Wernli, 2014: Planning of aircraft measurements within a warm conveyor belt. Weather, 69 (6), June 2014, doi:10.1002/wea.2245.


Grams, C. M., S.C. Jones, C.A. Davis, P.A. Harr, and M. Weissmann, 2013: The impact of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) on the midlatitude flow. Part I: upper-level ridgebuilding and modification of the jet. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 2148–2164, doi:10.1002/qj.2091.

Grams, C. M., S.C. Jones, and C.A. Davis, 2013: The impact of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) on the midlatitude flow. Part II: downstream evolution. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 2165–2180, doi:10.1002/qj.2119.


Grams, C. M., H. Wernli, M. Böttcher, J. Čampa, U. Corsmeier, S.C. Jones, J.H. Keller, C.-J. Lenz, and L. Wiegand, 2011: The key role of diabatic processes in modifying the upper-tropospheric wave guide: a North Atlantic case-study. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137: 2174-2193, doi:10.1002/qj.891.

Huang, Q., J. H. Marsham, D.J. Parker, W. Tian and C. M. Grams, 2010: Simulations of the effects of surface heat flux anomalies on stratification, convective growth and vertical transport within the Saharan boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D05201, doi:10.1029/2009JD012689.

Grams, C. M., S.C. Jones, J.H. Marsham, D.J. Parker, J.M. Haywood, and V. Heuveline, 2010: The Atlantic Inflow to the Saharan heat low: observations and modelling. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, SI1, 125-140, doi:10.1002/qj.429.

Marsham, J.H., D.J. Parker, C. M. Grams, B.T. Johnson, W.M.F. Grey, and A.N. Ross, 2008a: Observations of mesoscale and boundary-layer scale circulations affecting dust transport and uplift over the Sahara. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6979–6993, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6979-2008.

Marsham, J.H., D.J. Parker, C. M. Grams, C.M. Taylor, and J.M. Haywood, 2008b: Uplift of Saharan dust south of the intertropical discontinuity. J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2008JD009844.