07/10/2021 - Welcome Marta Wenta


We warmly welcome Dr Marta Wenta as a new postdoc in the “Large-Scale Dynamics and Predictability” group. Marta will work in the German-Swiss project “GULFimpact: The role of coherent air streams in shaping the Gulf stream’s impact on the large-scale extratropical circulation”. The project will explore how air mass transformations due to air-sea interaction along the Gulf stream oceanic front, latent heat release in cyclones, and cold air outbreaks from the Arctic affect the large-scale circulation over the North Atlantic and Europe.
Marta just received a PhD in Earth and Environmental Sciences from the University of Gdańsk for her doctoral research on numerical modelling and observations of the atmospheric boundary layer in polar regions, in particular at the ocean – sea-ice – atmosphere interface. Her research included the organisation and participation of measurement campaigns in collaboration with international partners at – amongst others – CIRES, Boulder and the Finnish Meteorological Service. We wish Marta great success at IMK-TRO and lots of fun with her future work and colleagues.

29/09/2021 - Welcome Marisol Osman


We welcome Dr Marisol Osman as a new postdoc in the “Large-Scale Dynamics and Predictability” group. Marisol will work in a collaborative project with AXPO Solutions AG and assess weather forecast performance on medium-range and subseasoanal forecast horizons for better meteorological guidance in energy trading. A specific focus lays on exploiting windows of forecast opportunity with respect to weather regimes.

Marisol is an experienced researcher in subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) predictability. Her past research focused on climate variability and predictability in the extratropical southern hemisphere arising from – amongst others – tropical heating such as the ENSO teleconnection or from polar latitudes. In addition, she worked extensively on making use of climate information for various stake-holders. Marisol implemented the seasonal forecasting system for the Argentine Meteorological Service which she developed during her PhD in Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and developed S2S forecasting tools for agriculture in Argentina. Finally, Marisol was Executive Committee Member of the international YESS (Young Earth System Scientists) early career scientists network ( We wish Marisol a warm welcome at IMK-TRO and lots of fun with her future work and colleagues.

02/06/2021 - How far into the future can we predict large-scale weather?

Bild Quelle für Anzeigebild: Adobe Stock / (links), Keystone / (rechts)
The 7 European weather regimes and their corresponding forecast skill in ECMWF's subseasonal forecasts. Source: Büeler et al. 2021 [4]

Some decades ago, weather forecasts more than two weeks ahead were hard to imagine. Today, certain weather apps claim to be able to tell us whether the planned barbecue party three weeks ahead will or will not drown in rain. Are forecasts like these trustworthy? Indeed, the last few decades were characterized by a rapid increase in computational power and a continuous improvement of numerical weather prediction modeling systems. This has allowed weather forecasting centers to provide forecasts that go beyond two weeks, which is commonly referred to as extended-range or sub-seasonal lead times. Nevertheless, such sub-seasonal forecasts still have moderate to weak skill and are thus a growing field of research. Since the highly chaotic nature of the atmosphere will never allow us to predict a local shower in three weeks from now, sub-seasonal forecasts aim to predict the occurrence probability of large-scale weather conditions, such as weather regimes. These are large-scale weather patterns in the midlatitude atmosphere that persist for several days to weeks and modulate regional surface weather in characteristic ways. As numerous socio-economic sectors such as the energy industry, national health services, or agriculture are strongly influenced by the evolution of such weather regimes [1, 2, 3], it is important to understand how well they can be predicted by state-of-the-art sub-seasonal weather models.

Previous studies have primarily evaluated sub-seasonal weather regime forecasts in winter, when the atmosphere tends to be most predictable. A new study of our research group in collaboration with colleagues at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) [4] has investigated for the first time how well the sub-seasonal ECMWF (re)forecasts predict a set of seven Atlantic-European weather regimes (Fig. 1, left) throughout the year. A first key finding is that errors in regime occurrence frequency are largest in summer and smallest in winter. Some of these occurrence frequency errors can be explained by consistent errors in regime duration, the number of regime life cycles, and the transitions between regimes. A second key finding is that regimes can be skillfully predicted up to about two weeks ahead. In winter, the regime skill horizon is about 5 days longer than in summer and spring, and about 3 days longer than in fall (Fig. 1, top right). The year-round skill horizon tends to be longest for the Zonal Regime and the Greenland Blocking, which is driven by their high persistence in winter that allows skillful predictions beyond 3 weeks. In contrast, the skill horizon is 3 to 5 days shorter for the European Blocking than for all the other regimes (Fig. 1, bottom right), which is common for all seasons but most pronounced in winter and spring.

The study further elucidates windows of opportunity for enhanced sub-seasonal regime forecast skill. First, predicting a regime within a multi-day lead time window rather than day-by-day increases the skill horizon by several days. Second, global teleconnections varying on slower (seasonal) timescales can provide sub-seasonal predictability in the midlatitudes. Two important such teleconnections arise from the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) in winter (see also our previous news article), and tropical convection organized in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The study shows that the average winter regime skill horizon tends to be enhanced following an anomalously strong SPV but reduced following an anomalously weak SPV at forecast initialization. Likewise, the year-round regime skill tends to be enhanced when tropical convection related to the MJO is located over the Maritime Continent and the western to central Pacific but reduced when it is located over the Indian Ocean.

In conclusion, it is impossible to predict whether a local shower will drown our barbecue party in three weeks. However, we can make valuable estimates on the predominant large-scale weather conditions several weeks ahead, which can be of enormous socio-economic potential. The confidence in these estimates strongly depends on the situation: for instance, it is much more likely to correctly predict a long-lasting mild phase induced by a Zonal Regime or a cold wave induced by a Greenland Blocking in winter than it is to predict a heat wave induced by a European Blocking in summer. Despite these existing windows of opportunity, there is promising potential for further model improvements: for instance, the relatively poor sub-seasonal forecast skill in summer might be improved by further reducing the large-scale circulation errors in summer. Likewise, the skill horizon in winter might be further extended by improving the model’s ability to correctly represent in particular weak SPVs and specific MJO phases. Finally, it is important to better understand and thus model the processes driving blocking over Europe, which is a focus of the ongoing research in our group. Considering the expected increase in heat waves associated with blocking in a changing climate, this should even be put on the top of the priority list.\DB

[1] Beerli, R., and Grams, C. M., 2019: Stratospheric modulation of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic-European region and its implications for surface weather events. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 145, 3732–3750,

[2] Charlton-Perez, A. J., Aldridge, R. W., Grams, C. M., and Lee, R., 2019: Winter pressures on the UK health system dominated by the Greenland Blocking weather regime. Weather Clim. Extremes, 25, 100218,

[3] White, C. J., …, C. M. Grams, D. Büeler, …, et al., 2021: Advances in the application and utility of subseasonal-to-seasonal predictions. Submitted to Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.

[4] Büeler, D., Ferranti, L., Magnusson, L., Quinting, J. F., and Grams, C. M., 2021: Year-round sub-seasonal forecast skill for Atlantic-European weather regimes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., accepted,

05/02/2021 - Artificial intelligence helps to verify processes in NWP and climate models

Bild A. Oertel
Fig. 1: Exemplary application of CNN-based WCB diagnostic to ICON forecast. Figure provided by Annika Oertel.
Bild J. Wandel
Fig. 2: Frequency bias of WCB ascent for DJF 1997-2017 (shading) at 7 days forecast lead time. Figure provieded by Jan Wandel.

Physical processes on the weather time-scale importantly modulate the large-scale midlatitude circulation. In particular, the most rapidly ascending air streams in extratropical cyclones, so-called warm conveyor belts (WCBs), have a major impact on the dynamics and are sources and magnifiers of forecast uncertainty. Thus, an adequate representation of WCBs is desirable in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Most often, WCBs are defined on the base of Lagrangian trajectories which are computationally expensive to calculate and require data at high spatio-temporal resolution. Thus, systematic evaluations of the representation of WCBs in large numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate model data sets are missing.

A major goal of the Helmholtz Young Investigator Group “Sub-seasonal Atmospheric Predictability: Understanding the Role of Diabatic Outflow” (SPREADOUT) at IMK-TRO is to develop statistical techniques that allow the identification of WCBs without performing expensive trajectory computations [1]. Most recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) models were trained to predict the occurrence of WCBs using a combination of meteorological predictors which are physically meaningful to describe the WCB and which are routinely available in NWP forecast and climate model projections. The validation of the CNN models against a trajectory-based data set confirms that the deep learning based approach reliably replicates the climatological frequency of WCBs as well as their footprints at instantaneous time steps [2].

With its comparably low computational costs the new deep learning based diagnostic is ideally suited to systematically verify WCBs in large datasets such as ensemble reforecast or climate model projections. Further, the diagnostic can be easily applied to different modeling systems such as the ICON NWP model (Fig. 1). Accordingly, model intercomparisons concerning the representation of WCBs will be conducted in future studies. A first systematic verification of WCBs in ECMWF‘s subseasonal to seasonal reforecasts highlights that significant systematic biases in the occurrence frequency of WCBs exist (Fig. 2) and that reliable predictions of WCBs are not possible beyond 10 days forecast lead time [3].

Overall, the novel diagnostic demonstrates how deep learning methods may be used to advance our fundamental understanding of processes on the weather time-scale that are involved in forecast uncertainty and systematic biases in NWP and climate models.\JQ

[1] Quinting, J. F., & Grams, C. M. (2021). Toward a Systematic Evaluation of Warm Conveyor Belts in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Models. Part I: Predictor Selection and Logistic Regression Model, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78, 1465-1485,

[2] Quinting, J. F. & Grams, C. M. (2021): EuLerian Identification of ascending Air Streams (ELIAS 2.0) in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Models. Part I: Development of deep learning model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review

[3] Wandel, J., J. F. Quinting, C. M. Grams (2021). Towards a systematic evaluation of warm conveyor belts in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Part II: Verification of operational reforecasts. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, accepted.

21/01/2021 - Christian Grams awarded with prestigious 3-year ECMWF Fellowship

ECMWF Fellowship Programme ECMWF
ECMWF Fellowship Programme (; Image: iLexx / Stock / Getty Images Plus)

Christian Grams’ years of process-oriented research on improving sub-seasonal atmospheric predictions have been awarded with the prestigious 3-year ECMWF Fellowship starting this January. As one of seven new ECMWF Fellows, Christian (together with our research group) will have the opportunity to work even more closely with our colleagues at ECMWF. The Fellowship will be hosted in the Earth Predictability Section led by Magdalena Balmaseda. Frédéric Vitart, a world-leading expert on sub-seasonal atmospheric predictability, will serve as direct host. The partnership will involve regular scientific exchange, joint publications and reports (outcomes of prior collaborations are listed below), research visits at ECMWF in Reading (as soon as the pandemic situation allows it), and access to ECMWF’s operational forecast data and computing facilities. With the fellowship programme, ECMWF aims to target their research collaborations in a way to better achieve their long-term scientific objectives. Extending the weather forecast skill horizon into sub-seasonal timescales is one of their ambitious objectives and at the same time one of the key foci of our research group. In the name of our whole research group, we would like to congratulate Christian for this great achievement and we are very much looking forward to three years of exciting collaboration with colleagues at ECMWF!

Dominik Büeler and Julian Quinting, in the name of the Large-Scale Dynamics and Predictability Group

Grams, C. M., L. Magnusson, and L. Ferranti, 2020: How to make use of weather regimes in extended-range predictions for Europe. ECMWF,

Grams, C. M., L. Magnusson, and E. Madonna, 2018: An atmospheric dynamics perspective on the amplification and propagation of forecast error in numerical weather prediction models: A case study. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 144, 2577–2591, doi:10.1002/qj.3353

Quinting, J. F., and F. Vitart, 2019: Representation of synoptic-scale Rossby wave packets and blocking in the S2S Prediction Project database. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 1070–1078, doi:10.1029/2018GL081381

Schäfler, A., and Coauthors, 2018: The North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 1607–1637, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0003.1

14/12/2020 - LSDP-Team at AGU2020 online

Bild A. Oertel / D. Büeler / J. Wandel / AGU
Poster Contributions by Annika Oertel, Dominik Büeler, and Jan Wandel

Several of us are attending the AGU annual meeting 2020 – online. Despite long chat sessions and night shifts this is a great opportunity to get up to date about the recent research activities in the community and to present our latest results.

Annika Oertel presents our Wave2Weather project with Corinna Hoose and Annette Miltenberger on microphysical sensitivities in WCBs in Poster A096-0007. In addition Annika will have an invited presentation on her PhD results on the role of embedded convection and negative PV in WCBs and its relevance for the larger scales on Monday 14th December 20:30-21:30 PST (15 Dec 04:30-05:30 UTC) talk A171-06.

On Wednesday 16th December 4:00-20:59 PST (12 UTC to 5 UTC+1d) SPREADOUT scientists Dominik Büeler and Jan Wandel will present our work on how synoptic-scale processes affect S2S prediction. Dominik will discuss the representation and forecast skill for our year-round Atlantic-European weather regimes in poster A226-0003. Jan will introduce our Eulerian WCB metric and discuss insights from the first systematic verification of WCBs in a numerical weather prediction model in poster A226-0011.

Unfortunately, you have to be a registered AGU2020 attendee to get access to our contributions. Feel free to contact us for discussions! /CMG

08/12/2020 - Recent Outreach and Public Lectures

Bild C. Grams / EFFEKTE Karlsruhe / YouTube
Scence from the recent outreach activities (source: youtube links, see text; EFFEKTE Karlsruhe)

During the last weeks we had two opportunities to present work from the LSDP team to a broader audience.

In a public science lecture contributing to the CVAS Seminar Series at University of Heidelberg on 26 November 2020, Christian explained surface climate variability on synoptic to subseasonal time scales to students and members of the PAGES community.  The recording is available here on YouTube and the full playlist of the CVAS seminar series as well.

On 8 December 2020 Michael Kunz, Peter Knippertz and Christian Grams of IMK-TRO took part in the science festival EFFEKTE in Karlsruhe. For the Dezember-Edition they gave presentations on weather forecast (P. Knippertz), extreme weather (M. Kunz), and renewable energy (C. Grams), and took part in discussions with the journalist Hanna Sophie Lüke and with the audience via a live chat. The recording is available on YouTube as well (in German), Christian’s part (20 min presentation + 10 min interview) starts from 1h 28min. /CMG

15/11/2020 - Contribution to ECMWF newsletter on the use of weather regimes in extended-range weather forecasts

ECMWF Newsletter No.165 ECMWF
ECMWF Newsletter No. 165

Christian Grams wrote an insightful article together with our ECMWF colleagues Laura Ferranti and Linus Magnusson in the ECMWF Newsletter No. 165 (Autumn 2020). It is entitled "How to make use of weather regimes in extended-range predictions for Europe" and, for instance, convincingly demonstrates that the North Atlantic Oscillation is enough to explain atmospheric variability in some situations but a higher number of up to 7 weather regimes (with which we extensively work in the SPREADOUT group) is clearly required in other situations. The full article can be found here (pages 14-19).

31/10/2020 - How reliable are long-term weather forecasts following weak polar vortex events?

RPSS Dominik Büeler / Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (Büeler et al., 2020)
Fig. 1: Forecast skill (RPSS) of the sub-seasonal weather model of the ECMWF for country-averaged, month-ahead temperature forecasts in winter (DJF) depending on the strength of the polar vortex at the beginning of the forecast. See [1] for details.

New insights show that month-ahead temperature forecasts for Europe following sudden stratospheric warmings have to be interpreted with caution.

With the advent of winter, media reports on meteorologists speculating about the possible role of the so-called polar vortex in the Northern Hemispheric stratosphere will become more frequent again. Based on this, they will make predictions whether the coming months, or even the whole winter, will be rather mild and dry in Central Europe or whether we might rather experience cold air outbreaks with large amounts of snow.

Although such predictions might seem highly speculative at first glance, it makes indeed sense to carefully analyze the forecasts for the evolution of the polar vortex (a huge band of westerlies at 60 degrees north stretching from the lower to middle stratosphere at 10 to 50 km height in winter). This is because since some years science largely agrees on the fact that the stratospheric polar vortex provides one of the largest potentials for predictability of European weather on sub-seasonal timescales (15 – 60 days) during winter. This is due to the fact that the polar vortex directly connects to the upper troposphere (up to 10 km height) and thus the jet stream, which dominates the evolution of weather at our latitudes. Particularly in late winter, the polar vortex can weaken abruptly, which is called a “sudden stratospheric warming”. This weakening leads to a stronger meandering of the jet stream, which in turn can cause long-lasting Arctic cold air outbreaks into Europe and North America. In contrast, a particularly strong polar vortex is associated with a strong and zonally oriented jet stream, which causes rather long-lasting mild weather in Europe.

To exploit this large potential for sub-seasonal predictability, it is important that the numerical weather models correctly depict the polar vortex and its coupling with the troposphere. While recent studies often investigated and emphasized the enhanced large-scale predictability following sudden stratospheric warmings, a new study of our group in collaboration with the Swiss energy company Axpo Solutions [1] has come to the conclusion that the sub-seasonal forecasts for weather in Europe in such situations might not be as good as previously assumed. Instead, forecasts have shown to be much more reliable during phases of a particularly strong polar vortex. More specifically, the study has investigated how well the sub-seasonal weather model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicts country-averaged temperatures in Europe one month ahead, depending on the state of the polar vortex at the beginning of the forecast. This has revealed that the model on average predicts too cold anomalies particularly over Central and Southern Europe after an anomalously weak polar vortex. As a result, the forecast skill is even reduced for some countries (e.g., Spain, France, or Romania) compared to normal stratospheric conditions (see dark blue filled boxes compared to dark blue narrow boxes in Fig. 1). In contrast, the model has shown to predict the warm anomalies over large parts of Europe after an anomalously strong polar vortex remarkably well and thus significantly increase forecast skill for many countries (e.g., Germany, Spain, and France) compared to normal stratospheric conditions (see dark red filled boxes compared to dark red narrow boxes in Fig. 1). These new insights are surprising and important, as they question the regularly assumed enhanced sub-seasonal predictability following sudden stratospheric warmings at least from a regional perspective. At the same time, they show that sub-seasonal regional temperature forecasts following an anomalously strong polar vortex are much more reliable, which has been neglected so far. This becomes evident for countries like France and Spain revealing substantially enhanced forecast skill up to 4 weeks ahead, which is impressive and fascinating.

The reduced forecast skill for some regions following a weak polar vortex strongly indicates potential problems in the model in predicting the large-scale weather conditions, so-called weather regimes, in such situations. Indeed, further new findings of our group show that sub-seasonal forecast skill for weather regimes in Europe is significantly lower following a weak polar vortex compared to a strong polar vortex. Whether this is linked to the fact that the model might struggle to capture one of the very different weather regimes, which climatologically occur after a weak polar vortex [2, 3], is subject of our current research.

Dominik Büeler, Large-scale dynamics and predictability group

[1] Büeler, D., Beerli, R., Wernli, H., and Grams, C. M., 2020: Stratospheric influence on ECMWF sub-seasonal forecast skill for energy-industry-relevant surface weather in European countries. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

[2] Beerli, R., and Grams, C. M., 2019: Stratospheric modulation of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic-European region and its implications for surface weather events. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 145, 3732–3750,

[3] Domeisen, D. I. V., Grams, C. M., and Papritz, L., 2020: The role of North Atlantic-European weather regimes in the surface impact of sudden stratospheric warming events. Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 373–388,

07/05/2020 - Welcome Annika Oertel


We welcome Dr. Annika Oertel as a new postdoc in the „Cloud Physics“ and „Large-Scale Dynamics and Predictability“ groups. As part of the Transregio „Waves to Weather“ she will work on strongly ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones, so-called warm conveyor belts (WCBs), and investigate the effect of ice microphysical processes on the evolution and intensity of WCBs using ICON and statistical emulation. She will also analyse the interaction between the representation of microphysical processes in WCBs and the large-scale circulation. During her PhD in atmospheric dynamics at ETH Zurich she combined satellite retrievals and radar observations of WCBs with high-resolution convection-permitting simulations to analyse the role of embedded convection in WCBs and its effect on the mesoscale and larger-scale circulation. Annika will be based on Campus South (office 13-5) and Campus North (office 316a, phone 26537) and her email is annika.oertel∂ We wish Annika a good start at IMK-TRO and lots of fun with her future work and colleagues.

27/04/2020 - Why does it rain in Australia during El Niño?

Variability of weather systems explains different precipitation patterns during El Niño as revealed from a comprehensive climatological analysis.

Every 3-8 years, a significant increase in water temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean causes global changes in temperature and rainfall - El Niño. Though Peru and western North America expect above-average rainfall during El Niño, the densely populated southeastern Australia fears drought conditions and a high risk of bushfires. For example, the last El Niño event in 2015/2016 was classified as the third strongest El Niño event since 1965 and was characterized by long lasting heat waves, a very early start of the bushfire season and a record-breaking drought. Still, El Niño is not necessarily associated with reduced rainfall in southeastern Australia shown by close to average rainfall during the strong El Niño event of 1997/1998. So, why does it rain in Australia during El Niño? Are large-scale atmospheric flow patterns and embedded weather systems responsible for this rainfall variability between similarly strong El Niño events?

In collaboration with Prof. Michael Reeder and Dr. Shayne McGregor from Monash University in Melbourne, these questions were investigated in our research group "Large-scale dynamics and predictability" [1]. By clustering monthly rainfall anomalies between June and November, a total of four monthly rainfall patterns could be found in southeastern Australia (Fig. 1): wet southeastern Australia (Cluster 1), dry southeastern Australia (Cluster 2), wet East Coast (Cluster 3) and wet South Coast (Cluster 4). Nearly 50% of the El Niño months considered are assigned to the dry pattern (Cluster 2), which reflects the general dry conditions expected in southeast Australia during El Niño.

Figure 1. Cluster-mean monthly rainfall anomalies (in mm month-1) in southeastern Australia. The black box shows the region used for clustering the rainfall anomalies. Statistically significant anomalies are dotted. Anomalies that are additionally robust within the cluster are hatched.

In order to advance the meteorological understanding driving these patterns, objectively identified weather systems are used [2]. The focus is on cut-off lows, extratropical cyclones, atmospheric blocking, moisture transport and warm conveyor belts (WCBs), which represent the main-ascending, precipitating part of extratropical cyclones. During dry El Niño conditions in southeastern Australia, a blocking high pressure system is centred over the southern part of the continent (Fig. 2b). This suppresses the occurrence frequency of rain-bringing WCBs, cut-off lows, and extratropical cyclones. In contrast, composites of the unusually wet Cluster 1 show a high frequency of blocking high pressure systems southeast of Australia and an increased frequency of cut-off lows along the South Coast and WCBs more inland. In addition, enhanced moisture transport from the Tropics across the continent supports rain-bringing WCB activity in southeastern Australia (Fig. 2a). It is the change in frequency of WCBS and cut-off lows that explains the wet conditions but not the change in rainfall intensity.

Figure 2: Schematic summary of large-scale flow anomalies and weather system frequency anomalies for wet Cluster 1 (a) and dry Cluster 2 (b) during El Niño. The red solid (blue dashed) line shows the cluster-averaged position of the positive (negative) geopotential anomaly at 500 hPa. Regions with statistically significant and robust frequency anomalies are marked (positive: +, negative: -): cut-off lows (blue), WCBs (pink) and blocking (yellow).

To return to the initial question, wet conditions during El Niño occur in southeastern Australia on monthly time-scales due to changes in the activity of weather systems. The results of this study highlight that these weather systems may override the effect of El Niño which is important when aiming for skilful seasonal forecast in this region.SH & JQ

[1] Hauser, S., C. M. Grams, M. J. Reeder, S. McGregor, A. H. Fink, J. F. Quinting (2020) A weather system perspective on winter-spring rainfall variability in southeastern Australia during El Niño. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. doi: 10.1002/qj.3808. Accepted.

[2] Sprenger, M., Fragkoulidis, G., Binder, H., Croci-Maspoli, M., Graf, P., Grams, C. M., Knippertz, P., Madonna, E., Schemm, S., Škerlak, B. and Wernli, H. (2017) Global climatologies of Eulerian and Lagrangian flow features based on ERA-Interim. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 1739–1748.

09/01/2020 - Research stay at the University of Tsukuba


After the successful start of our collaboration with colleagues from the Center for Computational Sciences at the University of Tsukuba (Japan) in May 2019, we spent several weeks at Tsukuba University in November. The collaboration between our groups at the University of Tsukuba and KIT is funded by the DAAD joint research project "Weather regimes in Europe and Asia: sub-seasonal predictability (WEASP)".

Following our discussions in May, we continued to work on two main working packages: 1.) a year-round definition of East Asian weather regimes and 2.) the verification of these regimes in sub-seasonal numerical weather prediction models.

The definition of East-Asian weather regimes turned out to be a challenging task since the occurrence of some regimes is limited to summer or winter. Also, circulation patterns in this region of the world are more transient which requires a different approach than for weather regimes in the Atlantic-European sector. Despite these difficulties, we made huge progress in finding a year-round definition for East-Asian weather regimes. Thanks to in-depth discussions with our Japanese colleagues it was possible to come up with a year-around weather regime definition for East Asia including Siberia. Furthermore, we newly identified year-around weather patterns specifically focusing on weather and its extremes in Japan. These definitions lay the basis for future studies on dynamical processes that influence weather regimes and weather patterns in East Asia.

Concerning the second working package (the verification of East Asian weather regime forecast), we discussed on how to best calibrate forecasts in order to account for systematic model biases. When investigating the flow dependent forecast skill of numerical weather prediction models, typical bias corrections may misleadingly degrade the actual forecast skill. We therefore developed a new calibration techniques which will be useful to elucidate the overall forecast skill of weather regimes in East Asia but also in the Atlantic-European sector.

Besides the meetings with our colleagues at the University of Tsukuba, Christian gave a seminar at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) in Tsukuba and visited colleagues at JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology). One of the highlights of our trip was a symposium on climate science at University of Tokyo with Professor Brian Hoskins, Mio Matsueda, Taroh Matsuno and other colleagues from Japan. After the symposium, we took the fast and frequently operating (every 5-10 minutes) Shinkansen train to spend a weekend in Kyoto (the former Japanese capital) where we visited many temples and shrines and enjoyed the Japanese culture. We would like to say arigato gozaimasu (ありがとうございます) (thank you very much) to our colleagues in Japan and look forward to their next visit in February./JW & JQ

18/12/2019 - Weiße Weihnachten: Eine Herausforderung für Subsaisonale Wettervorhersagen!?

Abbildung 1: a) Häufigkeit von Wetterregimen im Winter während starker (linker Balken), neutraler (Mitte), and schwacher (rechts) Intensität des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels. b) Häufigkeit von Wetterregimen während regionalen Extremwetterereignissen.
Abbildung 2: Subsaisonale Ensemble Vorhersage des EZMW vom 14. November 2019. Gestapelte Balken (alle 6h) zeigen die Wahrscheinlichkeit für jedes der 7 Wetterregime (Farben wie angegeben) oder für „kein Regime“ (grau) an.

Weihnachten 2019 rückt näher und die Menschen fragen sich bereits Anfang Dezember: „Gibt es weiße Weihnachten?“ Oder „Wird es wie in den Vorjahren eine warme und windige Weihnachtszeit?“ Fragen wie diese sind nicht nur von öffentlichem Interesse, sondern auch für verschiedene wirtschaftliche Aktivitäten wie die erneuerbaren Energien oder den Verkehrssektor relevant. Episoden mit außergewöhnlich warmen oder kalten Temperaturen, starken oder schwachen Winden oder starken Niederschlägen dauern in der Regel mehrere Tage und betreffen Regionen von der Größe eines Kontinents.

Auf diesen Raum- und Zeitskalen wird das Wetter von sogenannten Wetterregimen bestimmt – großräumigen Strömungsmustern, die in den untersten 10 km der Atmosphäre vorherrschen. Darüber - in der Stratosphäre - wird die Strömung im Winter von starken polumspannenden Westwinden dominiert, die den stratosphärischen Polarwirbel bilden. Die Intensität des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels ändert sich normalerweise allmählich innerhalb einiger Wochen, aber gelegentlich bricht der stratosphärische Polarwirbel abrupt zusammen, was als "plötzliche Stratosphärenerwärmung" bezeichnet wird. Aufgrund der dynamischen Kopplung zwischen der Stratosphäre und der darunter liegenden Troposphäre können extrem anomale Zustände des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels langanhaltend das bodennahe Wetter beeinflussen. Insbesondere wird angenommen, dass in Europa kalte und schwachwindige Bedingungen auf eine plötzliche Stratosphärenerwärmung folgen.

Eine kürzlich erschienene Studie [1] zeigt nun, dass nicht nur die extremsten Zustände des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels die Wahrscheinlichkeit für das Auftreten bestimmter Wetterregime verändern, sondern auch bereits ganz allgemein überdurchschnittliche, normale oder unterdurchschnittliche Intensitäten des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels (Abbildung 1a). Dennoch können großräumige Wetterextreme in verschiedenen europäischen Regionen unabhängig vom Zustand des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels auftreten. Dies lässt dadurch erklären, dass die meisten großräumigen Wetterextreme unter mehr als einem bevorzugten Wetterregime auftreten (Abbildung 1b). Nun ist es von Bedeutung, dass einige Wetterregime interessanterweise ebenfalls unabhängig vom Zustand des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels auftreten. Diese Regime können dann zu Wetterextremen führen, die im aktuellen Zustand des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels allgemein nicht erwartet werden. Beispielsweise ist das Regime „Trog im Atlantik“ (AT) in jedem Zustand des stratosphärischen Polarwirbels gleich häufig. Es kann somit auch während eines schwachen stratosphärischen Polarwirbels Sturmereignisse in Mitteleuropa verursachen, während andere Regime, die normalerweise solche Sturmereignisse verursachen (ZO, ScTr), unterdrückt sind.

Diese Ergebnisse lassen uns schlussfolgern, dass numerische Wettervorhersagemodelle nicht nur die Kopplung von Stratosphäre und Troposphäre, sondern auch großskalige Wetterregime korrekt wiedergeben müssen um die Stratosphäre als Quelle subsaisonaler Vorhersagbarkeit voll auszuschöpfen. Tatsächlich deutete die subsaisonale Vorhersage des Europäischen Zentrums für Mittelfristige Wettervorhersage bereits mehr als vier Wochen im Voraus korrekterweise eine Dominanz von milden und windigen Regimen (ZO, ScTr, AT) in der ersten Dezemberhälfte 2019 an (Abbildung 2). Diese Regime werden bis Weihnachten anhalten. Zumindest für Mitteleuropa sind damit die Chancen für Schnee an an Weihnachten gering. Aktuelle Vorhersagen sagen jedoch konsistent eine Änderung des vorherrschenden Regimes während der Feiertage voraus, was zumindest einigen von uns etwas Hoffnung auf verspäteten Schnee lässt.

Laufende Forschungsarbeiten unserer Gruppe untersuchen nun systematisch, wie die Vorhersagebarkeit von Bodenwetter vom Zustand der Stratosphäre und der korrekten Darstellung von Wetterregimen abhängt [2] und was die genaue Regimeausprägung und das damit verbundene Oberflächenwetter nach einer plötzlichen Stratosphärenerwärmung bestimmt [3]./ DB & CG & JQ

[1] Beerli, R., and C. M. Grams, 2019: Stratospheric modulation of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic–European region and its implications for surface weather events. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 145, 3732–3750, doi:10.1002/qj.3653.

[2] Büeler, D., R. Beerli, H. Wernli, and C. M. Grams, 2020: Stratospheric influence on ECMWF sub-seasonal forecast skill for European energy-industry-relevant surface weather. In preparation for Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc.

[3] Domeisen, D. I. V., C. M. Grams, and L. Papritz, 2019: The role of North Atlantic-European weather regimes in the surface impact of sudden stratospheric warming events. Weather and Climate Dynamics, submitted.


06/10/2019 - 19th Cyclone Workshop

For the 19th time, scientists from all over the world attended the “Cyclone Workshop”. The workshop is traditionally held every two years in the United States or Canada. Due to the 100th anniversary of the famous Bergen School of Meteorology paper, this year’s workshop took place at the beautiful scenery of the Monastery Seeon from 29 September to 04 October. The intense and exciting program included presentations on the dynamics of weather systems at all spatio-temporal scales, from supercells and tornadoes to cyclone families, atmospheric blocks and large-scale weather regimes. Christian, Dominik, Moritz, Julian and Seraphine attended the workshop and presented their research highlights in posters and talks. In addition to scientific talks and poster presentations, recreational breaks as well as interactive evening sessions helped to establish new contacts in the community. As a follow up of the workshop, Maria Madsen (University of Wisconsin) and Ben Moore (NOAA) will visit the SPREADOUT group to work on future collaborations.

01/08/2019 - Welcome Seraphine Hauser


We welcome back Seraphine Hauser in the group “Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability”. Seraphine studied Meteorology at KIT and always had a strong interest in weather systems. Consequently already in her Bachelor’s thesis she performed a synoptic analysis of a dust storm in spring 2015 over the Arabian Peninsula. For her Master thesis she joined our team and discovered an important impact of weather systems in ENSO related precipitation anomalies for Southeastern Australia. This included an intense collaboration with colleagues in Australia and a three-month research stay at Monash University. Seraphine now starts her PhD research in which she will investigate blocked weather regime life-cycles from a potential vorticity dynamics perspective making extensive use of ERA5-reanalysis data. This research is embedded within the Transregional Collaborative Research Center “Waves2Weather” and in close collaboration with colleagues at University of Mainz and the Young Investigator group “SPREADOUT” at IMK-TRO. Seraphine is based at Campus North temporarily in the Master’s room of IMK-TRO (building 435, office 204, phone: 23174). We wish Seraphine a happy start, a successful PhD time, and  a lot of fun working in W2W and at IMK. Welcome! /CG

26/06/2019 - KIT-Experten zu aktuellem Thema: Europäische Hitze ist auch hausgemacht

Abbildung 1: LAGRANTO (Sprenger and Wernli, 2015) 5-Tage Rückwärtstrajektorien zeigen die Herkunft der Luftmassen, die Mittwochmittag (26.6.2019, 12 UTC) die Region um Karlsruhe erreichen.

Dies ist eine leicht abgeänderte Fassung der KIT Expertenmail vom 26. Juni 2019. Die Originalfassung verfasst von Herrn Timo Schreck ist unter einsehbar.

Mitteleuropa stöhnt unter der aktuellen Hitzewelle. Waldbrandgefahr und gesundheitliche Folgen gehören zu den Begleiterscheinungen solcher Wetterextreme. Am Mittwoch, dem voraussichtlich heißesten Tag der Woche, sind Rekordtemperaturen von über 40 Grad Celsius möglich. Als ursächlich für diese schweißtreibenden Spitzenwerte werden üblicherweise nach Norden vordringende Luftmassen aus der Sahara genannt. Forscherinnen und Forscher am IMK-TRO haben nun herausgefunden, dass diese Behauptung nur teilweise zutrifft – die bodennahen Luftmassen im „Glutofen Mitteleuropa“ sind auch ein europäisches Produkt.

„Als Hitzewellen bezeichnen wir Perioden, in denen sich mindestens drei sogenannte Hitzetage aneinanderreihen. Hitzetage gehören in der jeweiligen Region zu den wärmsten zehn Prozent einer Jahreszeit“, erklärt Professor Andreas Fink vom Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung – Department Troposphärenforschung (IMK-TRO) des KIT. Meistens werde zur Bestimmung von Hitzetagen ein Referenzzeitraum von 30 Jahren herangezogen, so Fink. Die derzeitige heiße bodennahe Luft komme jedoch nicht aus der Sahara zu uns, sondern sei hausgemacht, wie neueste Forschungsergebnisse von Philipp Zschenderlein im Teilprojekt „Vorhersagbarkeit von Hitzwellen in Europa“ des DFG-geförderten Sonderforschungsbereich „Waves to Weather“ zeigen: „Die unteren Luftschichten in bis zu zwei Kilometern Höhe sinken auf dem Weg zu uns ab und erwärmen sich durch sogenannte adiabatische Kompression. Das kann man sich wie in einer Luftpumpe vorstellen, wo die Luft ebenfalls durch Kompression erwärmt wird. Im Vergleich zu vergangenen Hitzewellen ist die Erwärmung durch Absinken diesmal außergewöhnlich stark.“

Rechnungen der Luftmassenherkunft von Julian Quinting und Christian Grams, aus der Nachwuchsgruppe „Großräumige Dynamik und Vorhersagbarkeit“ am IMK-TRO, zeigen, dass die aktuell bodennahe Luftmasse ursprünglich aus dem Ostseeraum zu uns kommt (Abb. 1). Noch am Samstag hatte sie eine Temperatur von nur etwa zehn Grad Celsius. Dennoch sei die Saharaluft nicht ganz schuldlos, merken die beiden Forscher an, denn „sie schafft die Voraussetzungen für die lokale Entstehung heißer bodennaher Luft. In den mittleren Luftschichten, also in drei bis fünf Kilometern Höhe, werden Luftmassen aus Nordafrika nach Europa geführt und verstärken das Hoch ‚Ulla‘. Der Beginn dieser Großwetterlage mit einem Hoch über Europa und einem Tiefdruckgebiet über dem Ostatlantik war recht gut vorhersagbar und hat sich bereits zehn Tage vor dem erwarteten Höhepunkt der Hitzeperiode angedeutet.“

Die Saharaluft in der mittleren Schicht führt ungewöhnlich viel Staub mit, wie Staubvorhersagen des Modellsystems ICON-ART zeigen, welche Heike Vogel am IMK-TRO in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Wetterdienst betreibt (Abb.1). Auch auf die Vorhersage der Temperaturen hat die Saharaluft einen nicht unerheblichen Einfluss, wie ihr Kollege und Leiter der Arbeitsgruppe „Spurenstoffmodellierung und Klimaprozesse“, Bernhard Vogel erklärt: „Der hohe Staubgehalt führt zu Unsicherheiten in der Vorhersage der Maximaltemperaturen. Der Staub schwächt einerseits die direkte Einstrahlung ab, könnte andererseits aber auch die Bildung von Wolken beeinflussen und damit die Sonneneinstrahlung deutlich reduzieren.“ Diese Prozesse besser zu verstehen, ist Gegenstand aktueller Forschung am KIT.

Die Forschung zum Thema Hitzewellen am KIT ist mehr als nur heiße Luft, sie ist eine weltweit sichtbare Kernkompetenz am IMK-TRO. Neben einer Nachwuchsgruppe ist das KIT auch an zahlreichen Forschungsprojekten beteiligt: Der DFG-geförderte SFB/Transregio „Waves to Weather“ (W2W) hat unter anderem zum Ziel, die Vorhersagbarkeit von Hitzewellen zu verbessern. Im Teilprojekt „The role of multi-scale Dynamical Processes in shaping recent and future extreme Heat waves over Germany (DynProHeat)“ der BMBF-Initiative „Klimawandel und Extremereignisse“ (ClimXtreme) gehen Andreas Fink und Joaquim Pinto der Frage nach, wie Klimawandel und Hitzewellen miteinander zusammenhängen und wie stark diese künftig über das bislang erwartete Maß hinausgehen werden. Das Projekt „Photovoltaikertragsreduktion durch Saharastaub“ (PerduS) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Wetterdienst (DWD) hat zum Ziel die Leistungsprognosen für den erwarteten Photovoltaik (PV)-Ertrag während eines Saharastaub-Events zu verbessern.

Weitere Informationen:

AG Atmosphärische Dynamik

AG Grossräumige Dynamik und Vorhersagbarkeit

AG Spurenstoffmodellierung und Klimaprozesse

Ein Interview mit Dr. Christian Grams wurde am 27. Juni 2019 auf Deutschlandfunk ausgestrahlt. Eine schriftliche Version finden Sie hier, den Live-Mitschnitt können Sie hier anhören.


Weiterführende Literatur:

Bieli, M., S. Pfahl, and H. Wernli, 2015: A Lagrangian investigation of hot and cold temperature extremes in Europe. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 141, 98–108, doi:10.1002/qj.2339.

Quinting, J. F., and M. J. Reeder, 2017: Southeastern Australian Heat Waves from a Trajectory Viewpoint. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 4109–4125, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0165.1.

Rieger, D., and Coauthors, 2015: ICON–ART 1.0 – a new online-coupled model system from the global to regional scale. Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1659–1676, doi:

Schaller, N., J. Sillmann, J. Anstey, E. M. Fischer, C. M. Grams, and S. Russo, 2018: Influence of blocking on Northern European and Western Russian heatwaves in large climate model ensembles. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 054015, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaba55.

Sprenger, M., and H. Wernli, 2015: The LAGRANTO Lagrangian analysis tool – version 2.0. Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2569–2586, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2569-2015.

Zschenderlein, P., G. Fragkoulidis, A. H. Fink, and V. Wirth, 2018: Large-scale Rossby wave and synoptic-scale dynamic analyses of the unusually late 2016 heatwave over Europe. Weather, 73, 275–283, doi:10.1002/wea.3278.

14/05/2019 - Successful first research stay of our partners from University of Tsukuba at KIT

Group photo
Group photo on the rooftop. From left to right: Dominik, Akio, Mio, Julian, Jan, Takumi, Christian, Moritz

During the first week of May, we had the opportunity to welcome our research colleagues from University of Tsukuba (Japan), Mio Matsueda (Assistant Professor), Akio Yamagami (PostDoc), and Takumi Matsunobu (MSc Student), at KIT. Their stay was the kick-off visit in the framework of our two-year DAAD joint research project “Weather regimes in Europe and Asia: subseasonal predictability (WEASP)”, which aims to foster collaboration between our groups at University of Tsukuba and KIT.

The visit entailed numerous fruitful meetings, in which we discussed first results of our common research, exchanged expertise on open challenges, and ultimately defined specific goals and tasks we want to achieve during the upcoming year. More specifically, we advanced the two following main work packages: first, we will come up with a year-round definition of East Asian weather regimes, investigate their dynamical characteristics with a focus on diabatic outflow, and verify their predictability in subseasonal numerical weather models, similarly to what we already do for the Euro-Atlantic weather regimes. Considering the strongly varying and thus fascinating climate of Japan, which ranges from heavy snow falls triggered by the mixing of cold Siberian air masses with humid maritime air masses from the Subtropics to devastating Typhoons that regularly hit the island, this research may ultimately help to improve operational subseasonal forecasting in Japan. To this end, the knowledge of our Japanese colleagues about East Asian climate perfectly complements the dynamical, weather system-oriented expertise about weather regime life cycles at SPREADOUT. In a second work package, we will draw upon the strong technical and statistical expertise of our colleagues to verify the subseasonal predictability of year-round Euro-Atlantic weather regimes, which will be the foundation for many research goals of SPREADOUT. Beside these main topics, we exchanged further ideas related to ongoing work on extreme events in Japan, tropical influences on Japanese climate, and dynamical links between Euro-Atlantic and East Asian weather regimes. The diverse research topics of our guests from Tsukuba was also of interest in a number of side meetings with colleagues at IMK-TRO. As a final scientific highlight, the delegation from Japan presented highlights from their past and ongoing work in the “Karlsruhe Meteorologisches Kolloquium” (the IMK-wide external seminar): Mio presented some of his extensive work on the verification of medium-range predictability of Euro-Atlantic winter weather regimes and introduced the publicly available TIGGE and S2S museums. Akio continued with an overview of his research on the dynamics of extraordinary Arctic Cyclones and Takumi finished with his work on the predictability of a past heavy precipitation event over Japan.

Since this was the first longer visit of Europe for some of our guests, we of course did not want to miss out on introducing them to some of the natural and culinary beauties of Southern Germany. We thus went for a hike in the Black Forest on the sunny 1st of May, visited Heidelberg on a cold Sunday, and ate delicious local food in various restaurants in Karlsruhe, which included tasty asparagus, good beer, and a ride on the legendary slide in the “Badisch Brauhaus”. In return, Mio, Akio and Takumi told us a lot about their certainly different but very interesting culture, about their traditions, and about how science works in their country. After an intense week, we all agreed on the success of their stay and the potential of our collaboration. Therefore, we are excited to continue with our joint research project WEASP and hopefully exchange many new results when we from SPREADOUT will visit them in fall 2019.

For more information about the research of our colleagues, visit the webpage of Mio Matsueda’s group at University of Tsukuba. / DB

29/04/2019 - Spreadout at the S2S/TIGGE workshop at ECMWF in Reading, UK

Spreadout at ECMWF Christian Grams
Christian, Dominik, and Jan in front of the ECMWF building

We recently had the opportunity to attend the inspiring and perfectly organized "Workshop on predictability, dynamics and applications using the TIGGE and S2S ensembles" at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) in Reading (UK). The workshop gathered a diverse group of people from research, industry, and national weather services from all over the world who work with the two popular model intercomparison datasets for medium-range (TIGGE) and subseasonal (S2S) weather prediction.

Reading's busy morning traffic does not make it easy for the buses to reach the "Weather Centre", as the friendly Britains like to call it, on time. But with some patience and strengthened by a classic English breakfast, we succeeded and were ready to start the workshop. Jan and Christian both presented our operational weather regime forecast products. They showed their usefulness not only for operational weather forecasting but also for understanding how synoptic-scale processes, such as cloud-condensational heating in midlatitude cyclones, affect the subseasonal predictability of weather regime life cycles. Both contributions triggered lots of discussions with researchers working on large-scale dynamics, colleagues working on numerical model development, and forecasters seeking for better operational tools. Dominik presented an applied research project in cooperation with Remo Beerli (Axpo Solutions AG), which quantifies the skill of the ECMWF subseasonal model in predicting month-ahead, country-averaged surface weather over Europe after particularly strong and weak states of the stratospheric polar vortex during winter. Due to the sudden stratospheric warming at the beginning of this year and the failure of weather models (and thus the energy industry) to correctly predict its impact on surface weather, this contribution gained particular attention from energy meteorologists participating in the workshop, but also from model developers trying to better understand model biases associated with such dynamically complex events.

Numerous interesting contributions highlighted the great potential in using ensemble data for better predictions on subseasonal time scales. However, many studies also documented the lack of forecast skill for the midlatitudes beyond two weeks. It became obvious that models still struggle to fully exploit potential sources of extended range predictability (such as the stratosphere or the MJO). Working group discussions elaborated recommendations to the WMO WWRP/WCRP programs on how to make even better use of the TIGGE and S2S datasets and on the research needed to further improve numerical models. It clearly emerged that there is a need for a better understanding of the processes involved in teleconnections on subseasonal time scales and that the focus for the midlatitudes should be on large-scale regimes. Furthermore, the workshop showed us once more that understanding predictability and improving forecast skill on subseasonal timescales will be one of the key focuses for the coming decade, not just at ECMWF but all around the world. With our process-oriented approach in SPREADOUT to better understand European weather regimes, we are keen to help tackling this challenge!

We ended our week in Reading with an in-depth personal discussion with our collaborators at ECMWF. This was fruitful and very motivating because it once more showed their interest in our research and allowed us to further deepen our plans and specify the next steps in our collaboration.

The recordings of the talks and the posters of the workshop, as well as the working group reports can be found here. More photos of the event are provided here. / DB & CG

23/04/2019 - Highlights in research on extratropical transition

Typhoon Choi-Wan undergoes extratropical transition near Japan and amplifies the wave guide (satellite data provided by NOAA via GridSat, wave guide denoted as 2PVU contour from ERA-Interim).

Tropical cyclones (TCs) that move into the midlatitudes undergo a chain of processes that is called “extratropical transition” (ET). Key ideas of SPREADOUT research emerged from our roots in ET research and we are still engaged in this community: In autumn, Julian was rapporteur to the Ninth World Meteorological Organization (WMO) International Workshop on TCs Sub-Topic 4.3 “Extratratropical Transition” (webpage here, report here).

In this blog post we want to highlight recent research highlights on ET in which we were involved. Most importantly, Julian and Christian substantially contributed to a two-part review paper on ET published in Monthly Weather Review (Evans et al. 2017, Keller et al. 2019). Part 2 summarises our understanding on how diabatic outflow modifies the large-scale circulation and causes forecast uncertainty during the extreme case of a TC interacting with the midlatitude jet stream (Keller et al. 2019). Our colleagues at ETH Zurich now documented systematically when and how often ET actually triggers Rossby waves (Riboldi et al. 2018a). They further studied factors that favour an amplification of the wave guide and the eventual evolution of a remote blocking anticyclone (Riboldi et al. 2018b). Such an amplified wave guide is thought to cause high-impact weather in downstream regions. However, until recently it was difficult to quantify the effect of North Atlantic TCs on European high-impact weather. Now a climatological study lead by our colleagues at University of Bern revealed for the first time the conditions under which ET can double the likelihood of extreme precipitation in Europe (Pohorsky et al. 2019 and Uni Bern press release here). Focusing more on the actual transition of the former TC, IMK-research revealed that the interaction with orography can importantly delay ET or even hinder ET (Lentik et al. 2018). More details on the latter study are in this IMK-News highlight (link here). /CG



Evans, C., and Coauthors, 2017: The Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclone Evolution and Direct Impacts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 4317–4344, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0027.1.

Keller, J. H., and Coauthors, 2018: The Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones. Part II: Interaction with the Midlatitude Flow, Downstream Impacts, and Implications for Predictability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 147, 1077–1106, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0329.1.

Lentink, H. S., C. M. Grams, M. Riemer, and S. C. Jones, 2018: The Effects of Orography on the Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones: A Case Study of Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 4231–4246, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0150.1.

Pohorsky, R., M. Röthlisberger, C. M. Grams, J. Riboldi, and O. Martius, 2019: The Climatological Impact of Recurving North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones on Downstream Extreme Precipitation Events. Mon. Wea. Rev., 147, 1513–1532, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0195.1.

Riboldi, J., M. Röthlisberger, and C. M. Grams, 2018a: Rossby Wave Initiation by Recurving Tropical Cyclones in the Western North Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 1283–1301, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0219.1.

Riboldi, J., C. M. Grams, M. Riemer, and H. M. Archambault, 2018b: A Phase Locking Perspective on Rossby Wave Amplification and Atmospheric Blocking Downstream of Recurving Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 147, 567–589, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0271.1.

18/04/2019 - 3 Months Research Stay at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia


Seraphine Hauser, Master’s student in the Large-scale dynamics and predictability group, spent the last 3 months in Australia to work on her thesis about ‘A weather system perspective on cool-season rainfall variability in southeastern Australia during El Niño’ in the School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment in Melbourne. Together with her supervisors abroad, Michael Reeder and Shayne McGregor, she discussed her latest results and got inspiration for further investigations. Seraphine’s analysis reveals the importance of midlatitude weather systems for the month-to-month rainfall variability that is observed during El Niño. In particular, the interplay of blocking anticyclones, cut-off systems and warm conveyor belts determines whether southeastern Australia experiences anomalously dry or wet conditions – an important information for the agricultural sector. During her stay in Melbourne, which was supported by the ARC Center of Excellence for Climate System Science, Seraphine also got the chance to visit the Bureau of Meteorology to further expand her expertise on the characteristics of weather and climate in Down Under.

Regarding the last 3 months, Seraphine is very happy about the experiences and exchange with researchers at Monash University and grateful that the final thesis will feature many of Michael’s and Shayne’s suggestions. /SH

20/02/2019 - Welcome Moritz Pickl

We welcome Moritz Pickl in the group “Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability”. Moritz received a Bachelor’s degree in Freiburg and then moved to the University of Berne for a Master’s degree in Climate Sciences with specialization in Atmospheric Sciences. In his thesis he studied the variability of North Atlantic teleconnections and ocean-atmosphere interaction during the last millennium. He continued with a one-year internship at MeteoSwiss where he contributed to the preparation of the Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2018.

Moritz now starts a PhD in which he will investigate the sensitivity of diabatic outflow and its impact on the large-scale circulation with numerical experiments in ICON and with data from the IFS ensemble. This will be an important component of the project “SPREADOUT” and inform us if the correct representation of diabatic outflow is critical during weather regime life cycle stages. Moritz is based at Campus North (435, office 316a). We wish Moritz a great start, success and a lot of fun with his work and colleagues at IMK. Welcome! / CG

13/01/2019 - Representation of synoptic‐scale Rossby Wave Packets and Blocking in the S2S Prediction Project Database

AGGrams_Quinting_Vitart_Fig2 GRL
Fig 1. Bias in RWP (top) initiation and (bottom) decay frequency for lead time of 21–27 days. Positive (negative) values indicate an overestimation (underestimation). Taken from Fig. 2 in [1].

Equatorward and poleward wind perturbations propagating eastward along the fast flowing air currents in midlatitudes are commonly referred to as Rossby wave packets (RWPs). Typically, the waves form in the entrance region of the midlatitude storm tracks, that is, over the western North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. Regions of RWP decay are the exit regions of the storm tracks over North America and the East Atlantic/European region.

The occurrence of RWPs has been linked to extreme weather events such as intense winter storms, heat waves, and heavy precipitation. Hence, an adequate representation of RWPs in state‐of‐the‐art numerical weather prediction models is desirable to better predict these weather extremes.

In a recent study [1], we now verify for the first time the representation of RWPs in a set of 11 numerical weather prediction models on time‐scales of up to 28 days. It is shown that fundamental properties such as their climatological frequency of occurrence, their life time, and their mean propagation distance are represented reasonably well. However, models ‐ especially those with a rather coarse horizontal grid spacing ‐ struggle to adequately represent the frequency of decay of these waves in the exit region of the storm tracks over the Atlantic/European sector. Instead of decaying over the eastern North Atlantic, RWPs propagate into far eastern Europe likely due to an underestimation of the occurrence frequency of long‐lasting and stationary high pressure systems – commonly referred to as blocking highs. The observed systematic errors in the frequency of blocking highs and in the RWP decay is most pronounced but not unique to models with coarse resolution. That the observed errors are not purely resolution dependent points to the effect of the different representation of key physical processes for RWP dynamics in models of the S2S database. To pinpoint these processes with process-oriented diagnostics is one goal of the Large-scale dynamics and predictability group./JQ

[1] Quinting, J.F., and F. Vitart, Representation of synoptic‐scale Rossby Wave Packets and Blocking in the S2S Prediction Project Database, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46. (2019).

17/10/2018 - Process-oriented Understanding of weather forecast error

Forecast error for 2m temperature
Fig. 1: Forecast error for 2m temperature in a six-day (+144h) forecast valid at 00 UTC, 13 March 2016. The ECMWF high resolution forecast is verified against surface observations. Taken from Fig. 1c in [1].

Despite huge progress made in numerical weather prediction, occasionally severe forecast errors occur affecting large regions. In Europe, such “forecast busts” are related to a misforecast of the large-scale circulation over the Atlantic-European region. An example on how this affects 2m temperature forecast over Europe is shown in Figure 1. In this six-day forecast issued on 07 March 2016, the model predicts too mild conditions for wide parts of western and Central Europe whereas it predicts too cold conditions in Italy and the Balkans (Figure 1; note that data from more weather stations is available in central Europe and thus the density of available surface observations is much higher there).

The March 2016 forecast bust was related to the onset of a stationary high pressure system over the North Sea region – a so-called European blocking regime. Such weather regimes typically last for several days to a few weeks and affect entire Europe. Thus, it is important to understand why numerical models struggle in correctly predicting their life cycles.

In a recently published study [1], we now reveal that condensational processes associated with the warm conveyer belt (WCB) of an extratropical cyclone effectively amplify a small error early in a weather forecast and projects it on the large-scale circulation resulting in the severe forecast bust for entire Europe for the later forecast hours.

The group now investigates if this is a singular case or if WCBs and other processes acting on weather time scales generally dilute forecast skill for the large-scale weather regimes on medium-range to subseasonal time scales (10-30 days). Therefore, we investigate dynamical processes driving weather regime life cycles using reanalysis and historical weather forecast data. This includes the investigation of how slower climate modes such as the stratosphere, the ocean state, or the Madden-Julian-Oscillation affect predictability of weather regimes [2] and how weather regimes modulate surface weather on subseasonal time scales [2, 3].

The group is funded by the Helmholtz Association with a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group Grant for the project “Subseasonal Predictability: Understanding the Role of Diabatic Outflow” (SPREADOUT). /CG.

[1] C. M. Grams, L. Magnusson, and E. Madonna, An atmospheric dynamics‘ perspective on the amplification and propagation of forecast error in numerical weather prediction models: a case study. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, in press, doi:10.1002/qj.3353 (2018).

[2] C. M. Grams, R. Beerli, S. Pfenninger, I. Staffell, H. Wernli, Balancing Europe’s wind-power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes. Nature Climate Change. 7, 557–562, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE3338 (2017).

[3] L. Papritz, C. M. Grams, Linking Low‐Frequency Large‐Scale Circulation Patterns to Cold Air Outbreak Formation in the Northeastern North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters. 45, 2542–2553, doi:10.1002/2017GL076921 (2018).

12/10/2018 - Spreadout at the WWRP/WCRP S2S and S2D conference in Boulder, CO

Impressions from the S2S conference in Boulder. Photo credits: University Corporation for Atmospheric Science

The conference aimed to foster the exchange of information between the S2S and S2D communities, to identify challenges for transferring S2S and S2D research into operations, and to identify new collaborations, initiatives and urgent science issues ( Our contributions covered various of the conference themes: Dominik presented his applied research with Remo Beerli on the importance of the wintertime stratospheric polar vortex in serving as a predictor of month-ahead wind electricity generation in Europe. Julian’s and Christian’s contributions focused on current science issues. Christian pointed out that diabatic processes within rapidly ascending midlatitude airstreams (warm conveyor belts - WCBs) contribute to the formation and maintenance of blocked weather regimes. Julian then stressed in one of his contributions that subseasonal numerical weather prediction models generally underestimate the occurrence of stationary anticyclones (blocking) over the Atlantic-European region. This may be due to an inadequate representation of diabatic processes – a hypothesis which we now study in further detail. Our research combining process understanding and applications received quite positive feedback. Motivated by fruitful and very inspiring discussions with the S2S community, we now continue to identify processes acting on weather time scales that might dilute forecast skill on subseasonal time scales. /JQ.

18/07/2018 - Welcome Jan Wandel

The research group "Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability": Christian Grams, Jan Wandel, Dominik Büeler, Nadine Schittko, Seraphine Hauser, and Julian Quinting.

We are very happy to welcome Jan Wandel as a student assistant in our group. Jan got a Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in Meteorology from KIT. During his studies he was engaged in IMK’s “early weather hazards warning” (Wettergefahrenfrühwarnung). In his Masterthesis at IMK-TRO Jan studied the synoptic environment triggering hailstorms in Europe.

Jan will now take care of operational weather regime forecast products in our group and investigate the linkage of weather regimes and hailstorms in collaboration with his former group. Jan will also develop operational forecast products for weather regimes on sub-seasonal time-scales. We wish Jan a great start, success and a lot of fun with his work and colleagues at IMK. Welcome!

Verbessern von Wettervorhersagen auf sub-saisonalen Zeitskalen

Abb. 1: Meteorologische Situation während der Hitzewelle in Mitteleuropa im Juli 2015: Infrarot Satellitenbild, blockierendes Hochdruckgebiet (blaue Schattierung), Ablenkung des Strahlstroms (grüne Kontur), „warm conveyor belt“ (blau-rote Trajektorien).

Fortschritte in der numerischen Wettervorhersage ermöglichen immer langfristigere Vorhersagen auf sogenannten sub-saisonalen Zeitskalen von einigen Tagen bis Wochen im Voraus. Auf diesen Zeitskalen bestimmen beständige, quasi-ortsfeste, und wiederkehrende Wetterregime die Variabilität der großräumigen Strömung. Diese Wetterregime bestimmen den Charakter des täglichen Wetters für eine längere Zeitperiode und für Gebiete der Größe Europas. Daher beeinflussen Wetterregime zahlreiche gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Aktivitäten, wie z.B. die Landwirtschaft, den Verkehr oder die erneuerbaren Energien [1].

Dennoch ist es weiter eine große Herausforderung den Lebenszyklus dieser Wetterregime auf sub-saisonalen Zeitskalen korrekt vorherzusagen. Grund dafür ist das gleichzeitige Wirken meteorologischer Prozesse auf sehr verschiedenen räumlichen und zeitlichen Skalen: Auf kürzeren Zeitskalen, werden Wetterregimelebenszyklen von Wettersystemen, wie etwa außertropischen Tiefdruckgebieten oder Gewittersystemen beeinflusst. Auf längeren Zeitskalen sind langsamere Elemente des Klimasystems, wie zum Beispiel die Stratosphäre oder tropische Konvektion (Madden-Julian-Oszillation), Einflussfaktoren für Wetterregime, die teilweise Vorhersagbarkeit für Wetterregime auf sub-saisonalen Zeitskalen geben.

Die neu am IMK-TRO eingerichtete Gruppe „Großräumige Dynamik und Vorhersagbarkeit“ erforscht die physikalischen und dynamischen Prozesse, die Vorhersagbarkeit und Vorhersagegüte auf sub-saisonalen Zeitskalen bestimmen. Dabei legt sie den Schwerpunkt auf den Lebenszyklus großskaliger Wetterregime im Atlantisch-Europäischen Raum. Darüber hinaus erforscht die Gruppe in Zusammenarbeit mit Wetterdiensten neue probabilistische Vorhersageprodukte für die sub-saisonale Zeitskala.

Im Folgenden wird ein erstes Vorhersageprodukt am Beispiel der frühen Hitzewelle in Mitteleuropa, die vom 19.-22. April ihren Höhepunkt erreichte, gezeigt (Abbildung 2). Die Übersichtsdarstellung zeigt zunächst wie wahrscheinlich ein spezifisches Wetterregime in den nächsten 15 Tagen auftritt (Abbildung 2a). Mehr Details liefert eine Darstellung, die anzeigt wie stark verschiedene Regime in einer probabilistischen Vorhersage ausgeprägt sind (Abbildung 2b). Im Fall der Hitzewelle im April 2018 zeigten diese Vorhersageprodukte korrekterweise den Übergang eines “Skandinavischen Hochs“ (ScBL) in ein „Zonales Regime“, und damit das Ende der Hitzewelle, bereits mehr als eine Woche im Voraus an (vgl. Abbildung 2c und 2b). Oft sind jedoch gerade solche Regimeübergänge mit heutigen Wettervorhersagesystemen überhaupt nicht gut vorhersagbar.

Die Gruppe untersucht nun im Detail wie gut sub-saisonale Wettervorhersagesysteme die Lebenszyklen von Wetterregimen darstellen. Insbesondere werden physikalische Prozesse auf kürzeren Zeitskalen,  sowie deren Veränderung durch langsamere Komponenten des Klimasystems wie der Madden-Julian-Oszillation oder der Stratosphäre [2] untersucht. Diese Grundlagenforschung an der Schnittstelle verschiedener räumlicher und zeitlicher Skalen, wird nicht nur das Verständnis von Wetterregimen verbessern, sondern auch zum übergeordneten Ziel von universellen Vorhersagesystemen für Wetter und Klima beitragen.

Die Helmholtz Gemeinschaft fördert diese Forschungstätigkeit als Helmholtz Nachwuchsgruppe “Sub-seasonal Predictability: Understanding the Role of Diabatic Outflow” (SPREADOUT).

Link: Gruppe „Großräumige Dynamik und Vorhersagbarkeit“

[1] C. M. Grams, R. Beerli, S. Pfenninger, I. Staffell, H. Wernli, Balancing Europe’s wind-power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes. Nature Climate Change. 7, 557–562, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE3338 (2017).

[2] Papritz L., Grams C. M., Linking Low‐Frequency Large‐Scale Circulation Patterns to Cold Air Outbreak Formation in the Northeastern North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters. 45, 2542–2553, doi:10.1002/2017GL076921 (2018).

Abb. 2: Beispiele für neuartige Wetterregime Vorhersageprodukte: (a) Ensemble Vorhersage von 12UTC 15. April 2018. Die Balken zeigen die relative Wahrscheinlichkeit eines von 7 verschiedenen Wetterregimen an. Die unteren Zeilen zeigen jeweils an, welches Regime das Ensemble-Mittel, die Kontroll- und die hochaufgelöste Vorhersage vorhersagen (letztere nur bis 10 Tage im Voraus). (b) Ensemble-Verteilung der jeweiligen Ausprägung eines der 7 Wetterregime. Blasse Farben zeigen die jeweils stärkste und schwächste Ausprägung an, dunklere Farben das 25. und 75. Perzentil. Linien zeigen die Ausprägung in der Kontrollvorhersage (dick durchgezogen), hochaufgelösten Vorhersage (dick strichliert, nur bis 10 Tage), und im Ensemble-Mittels (dünn strichliert) an. (c) Tatsächlich aufgetretene Ausprägung der 7 Wetterregime vom 7. April bis 7. Mai 2018.

11/06/2018 - Visit of AXPO Trading

AGGrams_Axpo C. Grams
Julian Quinting, Dominik Büeler, energy meteorologist Remo Beerli, and Christian Grams in front of the AXPO main building in Baden (Switzerland).

The SPREADOUT group visited AXPO Trading in Baden (Switzerland) on 11 June 2018. The main purpose of the visit was to inform energy traders and meteorologists at AXPO about current research activities and to discuss forecast tools useful to the energy sector. After an introductory presentation on SPREADOUT by Christian Grams and Dominik Büeler, Remo Beerli (energy meteorologist at AXPO) showed us the trading floor. There we gained interesting insights in the day-to-day business of energy meteorologists and learned about the forecast products that are needed to provide reliable information to the energy traders. Future collaborations and research avenues were elaborated in a lively discussion in the afternoon.

01/06/2018 - Welcome Nadine Schittko and Seraphine Hauser

Dominik Büeler, Nadine Schittko, Seraphine Hauser, Christian Grams, Julian Quinting

SPREADOUT is growing further: We welcome Nadine Schittko and Seraphine Hauser who will join the group for the next year to complete their Master’s degree.

Nadine will analyse the representation of tropical cyclones in the global forecast model ICON. In the framework of the Master’s thesis, she will implement different tropical cyclone tracking algorithms to verify the intensity and motion of tropical cyclones against best track data. Some impact relevant North Atlantic Hurriances in 2016/17 will be studied in greater detail. The project is executed in close collaboration with DWD where the resulting tools may be used operationally in the future for verification purposes.

In her Master’s thesis, Seraphine is going to analyse “The effect of the El Nino Southern Oscillation on Australian climate variability from a weather system perspective”. Using a novel data set of objectively identified weather systems, the goal of the first part of the project is to develop a conceptual picture on how different states of the El Nino Southern Oscillation are related to the occurrence frequency of subtropical and midlatitude weather systems. The results will then be used to attribute the observed variability in temperature and precipitation to these weather systems.

We wish Nadine and Seraphine great success and a lot of fun with their work!

01/03/2018 - Welcome

We welcome Dominik Büeler as a new member of the group “Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability”. Dominik received his PhD from ETH Zurich for his thesis entitled "Potential vorticity diagnostics to quantify effects of latent heating in extratropical cyclones: methodology and application to idealized climate change simulations". Already before his PhD, Dominik gained experience both in climate and weather modelling: he analysed marine boundary layer clouds in ECHAM5-HAM and investigated the northern mid- and high-latitude climate in a climate change mitigation scenario in his Bachelor and Master thesis, respectively. During a one-year internship at MeteoSwiss, he worked on the potential of COSMO in predicting photovoltaic power, which offered him an insight into applied weather science. After a short PostDoc project at ETH Zurich last autumn on month-ahead predictability of European wind power, Dominik will continue research in the field of sub-seasonal predictability at KIT in the project “SPREADOUT”. He will study the representation of large-scale weather regimes in sub-seasonal numerical weather prediction models and physical processes governing weather regime life cycles. We wish Dominik a great start, success and a lot of fun with his work and colleagues at IMK.


15/02/2018 - Welcome

We welcome Julian Quinting as a senior scientist in the group “Large-scale Dynamics and Predictability”. Julian received his PhD from KIT for his thesis entitled “ The impact of tropical convection on the dynamics and predictability of midlatitude Rossby waves: a climatological study” His Diploma and PhD research was part of the PANDOWAE research unit. After his PostDoc time at ETH Zurich and Monash University, Melbourne, Julian is back at KIT and will work on Sub-seasonal predictability in the project “SPREADOUT”.

As a PostDoc in Zurich, Julian worked on upper-level frontogenesis, Rossby wave dynamics, and MJO teleconnections. In addition, he helped preparing the NAWDEX field campaign and in autumn 2016 contributed actively to flight planning and forecasting based in Iceland. His research focus during the last 2 years at Monash shifted to the understanding of physical processes driving extreme events in the Australian region (e.g. heat waves) and southern hemispheric Rossby wave dynamics. In SPREADOUT Julian will study the representation of physical processes in global NWP data sets, their modulation by global teleconnections (e.g. MJO, ENSO), and how they affect sub-seasonal predictability for Europe. We wish Julian great success and a lot of fun with his work and colleagues at IMK.



12/12/2017 - Statement regarding Nature Geoscience manuscript “Southward shift of the global wind energy resource under high carbon dioxide emissions”

Foto: Bernhard Mühr,

Based on an ensemble of 10 global climate model simulations following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, this study reports a strong decrease of potential wind electricity generation in the mid-latitudes during the XXI Century ( The authors use a simple methodology and data with low spatio-temporal resolution, and consider an exemplary wind energy turbine for the computations. Compared to other regions of the world (notably North America), the changes for Europe are comparatively small. These projections for Europe are partially in agreement with studies based on datasets with much higher spatial and temporal resolution (e.g., Tobin et al., 2015, Reyers et al., 2016, Moemken et al., 2018). These studies reveal rather small changes of wind energy potentials for Europe on the continental scale (+/- 5%). On the other hand, they point to increased variability of wind electricity generation in multiple time scales. The differences to the Nature Geoscience study are related with the different data resolution and methodology.

In particular, an increased occurrence of low wind speed (< 3m/s) events reported in Moemken et al. (2018) may cause challenges for the energy supply across Europe. However, this challenge can be overcome with suitable mitigation strategies and updated planning. For example, Grams et al. (2017) provide evidence that the concentration of wind parks in some areas (e.g. North Sea) is problematic to warrant a reliable wind electricity generation. A pan-European management strategy and a more de-central distribution of wind parks would permit to balance the weather and climate variability and thus contribute to a more reliable energy supply. Moreover, the joint management of different renewable sources (notably solar) would further contribute to mitigate the possible changes in wind energy production in future decades.



Grams, C. M., R. Beerli, S. Pfenninger, I. Staffell, and H. Wernli, 2017: Balancing Europe’s wind-power output through spatial deployment informed by weather regimes. Nature Climate Change, 7, 557–562, doi:10.1038/nclimate3338.

Moemken, J., M. Reyers, H. Feldmann, and J. G. Pinto, 2018: Wind speed and wind energy potentials in EURO-CORDEX ensemble simulations: evaluation and future changes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, in revision.

Reyers, M., J. Moemken, and J. G. Pinto, 2016: Future changes of wind energy potentials over Europe in a large CMIP5 multi-model ensemble. Int. J. Climatol., 36, 783–796, doi:10.1002/joc.4382.

Tobin, I., and Coauthors, 2015: Assessing climate change impacts on European wind energy from ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate projections. Climatic Change, 128, 99–112, doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1291-0.


Contact: Joaquim G. Pinto

Contact: Christian M. Grams