New paper about the topic 'hail'
Mohr, S., Kunz, M. und Keuler, K., 2015: Development and Application of a Logistic Model to Estimate the Past and Future Hail Potential in Germany. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. doi:10.1002/2014JD022959.
This study investigates to what extent the frequency of hail events in the summer months has changed during the past decades and which changes are expected to occur in the future. To improve the diagnostics of hail events by considering various factors relevant for the formation of hail, a logistic hail model has been developed by means of a multivariate analysis method. This statistical model is based on a combination of appropriate meteorological parameters (convective parameter, moisture content, etc.) and synoptic weather types. The output of the model is a new index that estimates the potential of the atmosphere for hailstorm development, referred to as potential hail index (PHI). Validations with independent data sets confirm the reliability of the model results. For Germany, the logistic hail model applied to reanalysis data over past decades shows a markedly north-to-south gradient with most of the potential hail days occurring in the South. Applied to an ensemble of seven regional climate model simulations, it is found that the potential for hail events will increase in the future (2021 – 2050) compared to the past (1971 – 2000), but only in the northwest and south of Germany statistically significant.